Vikings: They Did a Lot More Than Loot and Pillage
They were the bad boys of early Medieval Europe. From the pulpits of all of Europe and even farther came the prayer “A furore Normannorum libera nos, Domine”—“From the fury of the Norsemen, O Lord deliver us.” Sailing out of Scandinavia, they occupied large parts of Britain, Ireland, France (surely you’ve heard of Normandy), Ukraine, Russia, and Italy. They formed an elite regiment in Constantinople, where they were called the Varangian Guard.
They just happened to be the first Europeans to set foot in the Americas some half a millennium before Columbus sailed the ocean blue. They had a settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, which they abandoned only after constant warfare with the Skrælings (Indians).
We call them Vikings, but for them the word was a verb, not a noun. Most of the dread Norsemen raiders were farmers who would “go viking” when their short growing season was over. They were, in effect, part time terrorists.
Also, they just happened to create a great literature in the sagas, particularly those created in Iceland in the 13th century. They included such works as:
- Njúls Saga,, the greatest of them all, about revenge that gets out of hand
- Egils Saga, about the bard Egil Skallagrímsson
- Laxdæla Saga, with its female heroine Guðrun
- Eyrbiggja Saga, with its berserkers (yes, they actually existed)
- Grettirs Saga, about a famous outlaw warrior
These were probably the best works of literature to come out of Europe in the period in which they were written. They are all available in excellent translations from Penguin Books.
Incidentally, as a French woman of Norman heritage, my Martine is herself a Viking.